Off-grid PV System refers to the mode of power generation that is usually not connected to the electricity grid network, either for the reason that it is nonexistent or the user doesn't want/have the option for the connection.

Typically, a storage battery is used for storing the electric energy for use during non-generation hours, like dark cloudy days, and night times. The off-grid system is mainly used in remote places, farms, islands, less densely populated areas, deserts, etc., for the purpose of lighting, TV radio, and other basic needs of life.

In the case of industrial/commercial applications, it is mainly used for telecommunication, relay of satellite broadcast and TV, solar pumping system, navigation marks, anode protection of oil pipelines, weather stations, highways, checkposts, etc. In the regions where wind power generation and small-sized hydraulic power generation are available, a combined power generation system can be set up, e.g. wind power generation and solar power generation.

The typical components of an Off-grid Solar Power Plant are,

  1. PV Modules
  2. Controller for Power/Charging
    • The controller is a device that is used to control the output voltage at a set constant.
    • They are usually used to charge storage batteries as solar power generation varies due to various factors such as clouds, dynamic day-light variation with respect to time, etc. 
    • Modern controllers usually adopt MPPT technology, which maximizes the utilization of solar panels;
      • System sampling advanced circuit topology design brings ultra-high power conversion efficiency of equipment, system efficiency up to 95%, reducing energy loss process. 
    • They also have intelligent battery management, monitoring alarms, and DC distribution functions.
    • The device meets the maintenance requirement; the control module and monitoring module are all modular designs.
  3. Energy Storage Battery Banks
    • Batteries are used for storing electrical energy to be used as a buffer or
    • As a backup power during the non-Solar-generation time.
  4. Off-grid Inverter
    • Inverters used here are particularly designed for off-grid power systems with high efficiency of up to 85%.
    • They usually have decent overloading capacity, with protection that is suitable for all sorts of electrical appliances.
    • They usually are tolerant of working in harsh environments e.g.
      • wide temperature range,
      • high altitude, etc.
    • They are designed for low-maintenance applications, as reliability is key for remote installations.
    • The inverter usually comes equipped with MPPT technology and intelligent battery management design which is very efficient and smart;
    • They work as an integrated pure sine wave, with a low-frequency isolated transformer for excellent overload performance, suitable for a variety of electrical appliances.
    • Some inverters offer hybrid features, which can connect to an external generator or to an electricity grid.
  5. Meters
    • Energy meters are optional and are mainly used for performance monitoring purposes.
  6. EV charging outlet
    • Some inverters come with EV charging outlet as an additional feature,
    • It could be a simple socket, to an advanced controlled outlet.

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